Britroyals Menu Home & Shop Home & Book Shop. After Harthacnut, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066. Upon Henry I's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois. Edward I was crowned on 19 August 1274 with, Edward II was crowned on 25 February 1308 with. ^ King George V changed the name of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor on 17 July 1917. Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. Monck took control of the country in December 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when Charles II returned from France to accept the throne of England. By royal proclamation, James styled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was actually created until 1707, when England and Scotland united to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain, with a single British parliament sitting at Westminster, during the reign of Queen Anne, marking the end of the Kingdom of England as a sovereign state. (See family tree.). Richard I was crowned on 3 September 1189. Following the death of Harold Godwinson at Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot elected as king Edgar Ætheling, the son of Edward the Exile and grandson of Edmund Ironside. The name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period (Engle-land, Engelond). But while the islands now had a new name, there was as yet no single King of England. For one thing, his immediate predecessor on the throne, Queen Elizabeth I, had ordered the execution of his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had represented a Catholic threat to Elizabeth’s Protestant reign. Trade with India was expanded during James’s reign, and in 1607 England’s first permanent colony in the New World was established in Virginia—a colony named Jamestown, in the king’s honor. England is a country in Europe.It is a country with over sixty cities in it. It is in a union with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.All four countries are in the British Isles and are part of the United Kingdom (UK).. Over 55 million people live in England (2015 estimate). Dieu et mon droit was first used as a battle cry by Richard I in 1198 at the Battle of Gisors, when he defeated the forces of Philip II of France. After the Acts of Union 1707, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new Kingdom of Great Britain. He submitted to King William the Conqueror. Eustace died the next year aged 23, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right.[62]. A regnal name, or reign name, is the name used by monarchs and popes during their reigns and, subsequently, historically. Edmund Tudor's son became king as Henry VII after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, winning the Wars of the Roses. The young monarch was unable to resist the invaders and was never crowned. Britroyals Home Britroyals Shop Kings & Queens Kings & Queens. For example, Offa of Mercia and Egbert of Wessex are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but it is no longer the majority view of historians that their wide dominions are part of a process leading to a unified England. After the English Civil War (1642-1648) the country was briefly governed by Oliver Cromwell and then his son Richard. Historian Simon Keynes states, for example, that "Offa was driven by a lust for power, not a vision of English unity; and what he left was a reputation, not a legacy. Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G. Underwood, Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, Alternative successions of the English crown, Family tree of English and British monarchs, List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death, List of rulers of the United Kingdom and predecessor states, "Family of Edgar +* and Aelfthryth +* of DEVON", "Ethelred II 'The Unready' (r. 978–1013 and 1014–1016)", "Edmund II 'Ironside' (r. Apr – Nov 1016)", "Edward III 'The Confessor' (r. 1042–1066)", "William I 'The Conqueror' (r. 1066–1087)", "William II (Known as William Rufus) (r. 1087–1100)", "Richard I Coeur de Lion ('The Lionheart') (r.1189–1199)", "England: Louis of France's Claim to the Throne of England: 1216–1217", "Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain (1554)", "History of St Giles' without Cripplegate", "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626–1712", "William III (r. 1689–1702) and Mary II (r. 1689–1694)", "Archontology – English Kings/Queens from 871 to 1707", "British Royal Family History – Kings and Queens", "English Monarchs – A complete history of the Kings and Queens of England", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_English_monarchs&oldid=995347080, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 15:14. John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort was married to Edmund Tudor. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. In 1707 the English and Scottish kingdoms were formally merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Under the terms of the marriage treaty between Philip I of Naples (Philip II of Spain from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. Queen Elizabeth II became Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth on 6th February 1952. The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum ("King of the English"). The then Prince Louis landed on the Isle of Thanet, off the north Kent coast, on 21 May 1216, and marched more or less unopposed to London, where the streets were lined with cheering crowds. Henry II was crowned on 19 December 1154 with his queen. For British monarchs since the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, see. King Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thereby uniting the Lancastrian and York lineages. During the ensuing Anarchy, Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141—the first woman to do so—but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England. After King Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings, the Witan elected Edgar Ætheling as king, but by then the Normans controlled the country and Edgar never ruled. The Civil War in England from 1642 until 1652 stemming from a growing enmity between King and Parliament, led to the execution of King Charles I in 1649. Britain. The king who began the personal union was James VI of Scotland who was also James I of England, and his name is often written (especially in Scotland) as James VI and I. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707 under Queen Anne (who was Queen of Great Britain rather than king). Similarly, his grandson is James VII … [1], Arguments are made for a few different kings thought to control enough Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to be deemed the first king of England. The Angevins (from the French term meaning "from Anjou") ruled over the Angevin Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland. This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. At a grand ceremony in St. Paul's Cathedral, on 2 June 1216, in the presence of numerous English clergy and nobles, the Mayor of London and Alexander II of Scotland, Prince Louis was proclaimed King Louis I of England (though not crowned). So who was the real King Arthur? Matilda was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. Various families (all interrelated) have given England rulers since that time, including the houses of Anjou, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, Hanover, and Windsor. Britain was the name made popular by the Romans when they came to the British islands.. England. He became King of England in 1327 at the age of 14, after the deposition of his father King Edward II and retained the position until his death. The Heptarchy (Old English: Seofonrīċe) is a collective name applied to the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England (sometimes referred to as petty kingdoms) from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century until the consolidation into the four kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria, Wessex and East Anglia in the eighth century. Before naming Matilda as heir, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. William was crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day 1066, in Westminster Abbey, and is today known as William the Conqueror, William the Bastard or William I. Henry I left no legitimate male heirs, his son William Adelin having died in the White Ship disaster. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English"). He was never crowned. Those descended from English monarchs only through an illegitimate child would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion by Hardrada, but ultimately lost the throne of England in the Norman conquest of England. Æthelred was forced to go into exile in mid-1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death in 1014. However he suffered military defeat at the hands of the English fleet. Learn about why Queen Elizabeth's husband, Prince Philip, is not the king of England. England came under the control of Sweyn Forkbeard, a Danish king, after an invasion in 1013, during which Æthelred abandoned the throne and went into exile in Normandy. Both Egbert, king of Wessex and Offa, king of Mercia are sometimes called the first kings of England. The Tudors descended in the female line from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. Kings and Queens of England, Scotland, Wales, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. James II was ousted by Parliament less than three years after ascending to the throne, replaced by his daughter Mary II and her husband (also his nephew) William III during the Glorious Revolution. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate crowns resting on the same head. Richard II 1377-1399 Weak-willed "poet-king." Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then aged 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp). As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish. The House of York claimed the right to the throne through Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp, but it inherited its name from Edward's fourth surviving son, Edmund of Langley, first Duke of York. Mary II and William III were crowned on 11 April 1689. [xvii], This article is about English monarchs until 1707. After reigning for approximately 9 weeks, Edgar Atheling submitted to William the Conqueror, who had gained control of the area to the south and immediate west of London. George V was king of England from 1910 to 1936. [109] In 1555, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare both in Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades. Elizabeth I's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. [94] A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne. King Arthur The Legend of King Arthur. Nine days after the proclamation, on 19 July, the Privy Council switched allegiance and proclaimed Edward VI's Catholic half-sister Mary queen. Jane was executed for treason in 1554, aged 16. The royal house descended from Matilda and Geoffrey is widely known by two names, the House of Anjou (after Geoffrey's title as Count of Anjou) or the House of Plantagenet, after his sobriquet. They did not regard England as their primary home until most of their continental domains were lost by King John. The first king of England is generally said to be Egbert, who united the realms of Wessex, … No monarch reigned between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. By signing the Treaty of Lambeth in September 1217, Louis gained 10,000 marks and agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England. Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widow of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. In 1604, he adopted the title King of Great Britain. In less than a month, "King Louis I" controlled more than half of the country and enjoyed the support of two-thirds of the barons. The First Kings in England. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same year. England, Scotland, and Ireland had shared a monarch for more than a hundred years, since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I. The Principality of Wales was incorporated into the Kingdom of England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301 King Edward I invested his eldest son, the future King Edward II, as Prince of Wales. Philip was not meant to be a mere consort; rather, the status of Mary I's husband was envisioned as that of a co-monarch during her reign. When King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603, he was well aware that he was entering a sticky situation. There had been attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689, to unite England and Scotland by Acts of Parliament but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the support of both political establishments behind it, albeit for rather different reasons. James II was crowned on 23 April 1685 with. The name of King Arthur does not appear in records detailing the Dark Ages Kings of England either. The regnal name is usually followed by a regnal number, written as a Roman numeral, to differentiate that monarch from others who have used … Matilda’s son Henry Plantagenet, the first and greatest of three Angevin kings of England, succeeded Stephen in 1154. Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 without issue, her first cousin twice removed, King James VI of Scotland, succeeded to the English throne as James I in the Union of the Crowns. The British royal family changed their surname (last name) from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor in 1917. James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII and wife of James IV of Scotland. In addition, many of the pre-Norman kings assumed extra titles, as follows: In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie ("King of England"). Nonetheless, Philip was to co-reign with his wife.[103]. Louis VIII of France briefly won two-thirds of England over to his side from May 1216 to September 1217 at the conclusion of the First Barons' War against King John. After a coup d'etat in 1653, Oliver Cromwell forcibly took control of England from Parliament. While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701, enacted by Anne, another of James's Protestant daughters. [103][105][106] Coins were minted showing the heads of both Mary and Philip, and the coat of arms of England was impaled with Philip's to denote their joint reign. Henry VI 1422-61, 1470-71 Suffered from insanity King Stephen came to an agreement with Matilda in November 1153 with the signing of the Treaty of Wallingford, where Stephen recognised Henry, son of Matilda and her second husband Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as the designated heir. "[2] This refers to a period in the late 8th century when Offa achieved a dominance over many of the kingdoms of southern England, but this did not survive his death in 796.[3][4]. The Norman Kings of England in the Middle Ages The Kings of England in the Middle Ages started with the Norman Invasion. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. In the middle of the 17th century, the English Royalist squire Sir Robert Filmer likewise held that the state was a family and that the king was a father, but he claimed, in an interpretation of Scripture, that Adam was the first king and that Charles I (reigned 1625–49) ruled England as Adam’s eldest heir. In 829 Egbert of Wessex conquered Mercia, but he soon lost control of it. Son of Edward VII, King of England, and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, he married Queen Mary of Teck (called May) in 1893. An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions"[104] (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). It is from the time of Henry III, after the loss of most of the family's continental possessions, that the Plantagenet kings became more English in nature. The word, "England", loosely translates as, "The land of the Angles". This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. Who were all the kings of England? It was within the power of the Lord Protector to choose his heir and Oliver Cromwell chose his eldest son, Richard Cromwell, to succeed him. It became unused after the Normans introduced their form of Adalbert after their invasion. William II was crowned on 26 September 1087. Over the last several centuries the powers of the British monarchy have been gradually reduced, and they are now little more than figureheads. The House of Plantagenet takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, husband of the Empress Matilda and father of Henry II. The acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland (previously separate sovereign states, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch) into the Kingdom of Great Britain.[126]. Offa dominated a large part of southern England in the late eight century, but his descendants did not manage to keep the area as a kingdom. What is the only name shared by four consecutive kings of England - trivia question /questions answer / answers. This ended the direct Norman line of kings in England. Henry named his eldest daughter, Matilda (Countess of Anjou by her second marriage to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as well as widow of her first husband, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor), as his heir. Four days after his death on 6 July 1553, Jane was proclaimed queen—the first of three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant. His son succeeded him after being chosen king by the citizens of London and a part of the Witan,[38] despite ongoing Danish efforts to wrest the crown from the West Saxons. England used to be known as Engla land, meaning the land of the Angles, people from continental Germany, who began to invade Britain in the late 5th century, along with the Saxons and Jute.. Great Britain. Among them were Harold Godwinson (recognised as king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor), Harald Hardrada (King of Norway who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut) and Duke William II of Normandy (vassal to the King of France, and first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor). Alfred styled himself King of the Anglo-Saxons from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the English, his rule represents the start of the first unbroken line of kings to rule the whole of England, the House of Wessex. However, the two parliaments remained separate until the Acts of Union 1707.[111]. After the Monarchy was restored, England came under the rule of Charles II, whose reign was relatively peaceful domestically, given the tumultuous time of the Interregnum years. England is a part of, but not the same as, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Conventionally viewed as England’s first king William I is perhaps best known for his invasion of Englandon 14 October 1066. Matilda is not listed as a monarch of England in many genealogies within texts, including, The date of Edward II's death is disputed by historian. With the ascension of Charles's brother, the openly Catholic James II, England was again sent into a period of political turmoil. His son Edward the Elder conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first true king of England. [93] Parliament did the same in an Act in 1397. It was not until the late 9th century that one kingdom, Wessex, had become the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. She is head of the British Royal Family, has 4 children, 8 grandchildren and 8 great-grandchildren, and is 94 years, 8 months, and 1 day old.. She is the 32nd great-granddaughter of King Alfred the Great who was the first effective King of England 871-899. ÆÐELFLÆD f Anglo-Saxon Old English name composed of the elements æðel "noble" and flæd "beauty". This was the name of a Saxon king of England and two kings of Kent, one of whom was a saint. Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut (Canute) under which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Cnut. Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Crowns, until 1707. [ 111 ] after his death on 6 July 1483 with Canute! Brother, the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same head rival claimants to entire! Haplology during the Middle English period ( Engle-land, Engelond ) by haplology during the Middle Ages the of. Then his son Richard 's death, the two parliaments remained separate until the late 15th century the! Into a period of political turmoil Æthelred the Unready returned from exile was. 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