In the quasi-experiment, the authors compare an approach in which students solved mathematics problems on three levels differing in complexity using problem-based learning to a control condition. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3992.2011.00220.x. One of the issues we encountered when performing this review, was that interventions and research methodologies were often described rather briefly. However, studies on the effects of fully computerized adaptive programs (e.g., with adaptive feedback or intelligent tutors) or differentiation approaches for which an external teacher (or tutor) is needed (such as pullout interventions) were excluded. This makes it difficult to judge which differentiated instruction approach is most suitable for whom. Teach. We tried to tackle the question of how to implement differentiated instruction in a research-informed way. 31, 27–39. Clearly, more information about effective practices is needed. The effects were somewhat larger compared to those in the studies in primary education discussed by Deunk et al. Published in Print: November 27, 2019, as What Differentiated Instruction Is Not Related Stories "How to Differentiate Instruction (Without Losing Your Mind)," (Teaching Now) February 6, 2019. Within-class differentiated instruction: The study is about the effect of within-class differentiated instruction, as defined in our study (see section Working Definition of Differentiated Instruction). Development and evaluation of a questionnaire measuring pre-service teachers' teaching behaviour: a rasch modelling approach. What are the overall effects of differentiated instruction on students' academic achievement? For more information, visit the project page, where you can join the project and/or contribute to the discussion. 3–5, 6–8, 9–12. Differentiation is an approach that encourages teachers to respond to relevant differences among individuals while maintaining high expectations for all. We only used newly identified papers in case they were from journals indexed in the online databases Ebscohost, Web of Science, or Scopus to avoid selecting predatory journal outputs. In addition, the intervention is time- and cost-effective, meaning that it should not take excessive training or coaching nor use of external teachers in the classroom to implement the approach. New evidence on the effect of computerized individualized practice and instruction on language skills. Lastly, when aiming to gain further insight in the effectiveness of differentiated instruction, authors may want to reflect on how differentiated instruction is operationalized and measured. J. Adv. Binnenklas-Differentiatie. Differentiated instruction is an approach to teaching in which educators actively plan for students' differences so that all students can best learn. Table 1. 15, 5–11. Tiering refers to using the same curriculum material for all learners, but adjusting the depth of content, the learning activity process, and/or the type of product developed by the student to students' readiness, interest or learning style (Pierce and Adams, 2005; Richards and Omdal, 2007). Rev. 25, 775–781. Educ. In a recent review study on differentiated instruction in primary schools, the best evidence synthesis approach was used as well (Deunk et al., 2018). All lower ability level students—including students with learning disabilities—were required to begin with the lowest tier. On average, experimental students of all abilities performed better, except for high achievers who did not significantly outperform the control group. Therefore, more empirical evidence is needed about the implementation and relative effects of differentiated instruction to further inform the “differentiation-dilemma” of how to best divide time over students with different needs (Denessen, 2017). In a cluster-randomized design executed in four middle schools with 2,150 students, the effectiveness of the approach was compared to that of traditional teaching. In this study, the authors mentioned the benefits of selecting studies using strict pre-defined criteria (to avoid a garbage in-garbage-out effect). In case only subgroup means (of subgroups within classes of schools) were reported, we combined the outcomes of the subgroups with study as the unit of analysis to calculate a combined effect (Borenstein et al., 2009). However, given the pressures from policy to practice, did teachers change from a one-size-fits-all approach to DI? In the experiment, 13 classes with a total of 216 students were assigned to the peer-mediated differentiated content condition or a teacher-led control condition. The effect of adaptive versus static practicing on student learning - evidence from a randomized field experiment. In her narrative review, Tieso (2003) summarizes that ability grouping has a potential influence on student achievement when grouping is flexible, and teachers adapt their instruction to the needs of different groups. There are times in all classrooms when whole-class instruction is an effective and efficient choice. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8578.1992.tb00397.x. (1997). Teachers' instructional adaptations: a research synthesis. Most of the teachers consider professional experience ending as the first didactic degree is obtained, not being aware of the effects of their field of profession- teaching children for the unknown future. Res. 106, 901–918. Immediate, unplanned adaptations to student needs, so-called “micro-adaptations” (Corno, 2008), are not included in the theoretical model in Table 1, since differentiated instruction is—by nature—planned and deliberate (Coubergs et al., 2013; Tomlinson, 2014; Keuning et al., 2017). 1703 North Beauregard St. 110, 27–45. In Table 2 the effects and intermediate calculations for individual studies are described. There was an overall small significant effect of the intervention of d = +0.284 in favor of the tiering condition (see Table 2). Address Factors that Shape Well-being. 43, 150–159. Received: 14 May 2019; Accepted: 04 October 2019; Published: 22 November 2019. The SEM-R approach consists of three phases: (1) short read-alouds by the teacher (“Book Hooks”) and brief discussions about books, (2) students read independently in self-selected, challenging books while the teacher organizes individualized 5- to 7-min conferences with each student once every 1 to 2 weeks, (3) interest-based and more project-oriented activities. As the educational system transitioned to grading schools, it was assumed that children of the same age learned similarly. Differentiated instruction may also be embedded in other instructional approaches like peer tutoring, problem-based learning, flipped classroom models etc. Researcher-developed measures have previously been associated with larger effects than standardized measures (Slavin, 1987; Lou et al., 1996). J. Educ. J. Spec. doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2018.01.011, Schleicher, A. Of these studies, the study of Richards and Omdal (2007) has the most robust design. Available online at:, OECD (2012). The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12172, Sipe, T. A., and Curlette, W. L. (1996). Teach. Res. Quality of teaching in four European countries: A review of the literature and application of an assessment instrument. Roeper Rev. Int. In this approach, subject matter is divided into small blocks or units. Differentiated instruction purpose: The study is about differentiated instruction with the aim of addressing cognitive differences (e.g., readiness, achievement level, intelligence) or differences in motivation / interest or learning profiles (Tomlinson et al., 2003). doi: 10.1002/sim.1190, Gardner, H. (2016). Tomlinson, C. A. These differential effects should be interpreted with caution because of the limited number of students in the subgroups. Unfortunately, in only three studies, authors reported on differential effects for subgroups of students within classes. Educ. The effects of setting on classroom teaching and student learning in mainstream mathematics, English and science lessons: a critical review of the literature in England. A synthesis of research on language of reading instruction for English language learners. J. Spec. Realist review of literature on catering for different instructional needs with preteaching and extended instruction. Alternatively, teachers could use heterogeneous grouping to organize their differentiated instruction. Differentiation typically includes pro-active and deliberate adaptations of the content, process, product, learning environment or learning time, based on the assessment of students' readiness or another relevant student characteristic such as learning preference or interest (Roy et al., 2013; Tomlinson, 2014). Teach. Educ. Available online at:, Brink, M., and Bartz, D. E. (2017). Issues Pract. Differentiation of the learning process may occur because students divide tasks within the group based on their learning preferences or abilities. Teach. The selection includes studies on generic teacher trainings for differentiated instruction, ability grouping and tiering, individualization, mastery learning, heterogeneous grouping, and remediation in flipped classroom lessons. Papers reporting on the same project and outcomes were taken together as one study. Cole, R., Haimson, J., Perez-Johnson, I., and May, H. (2011). (2011). When teachers deliberately plan such adaptations to facilitate students' learning and execute these adaptations during their lessons we call it differentiated instruction. Prior to the lesson including differentiated instruction, teachers should have clear goals for their students, use some form of pre-assessment, and plan their adaptive instruction (Prast et al., 2015; Keuning et al., 2017; Van Geel et al., 2019). Teach. De Jager, T. (2013). 33, 1–19. (2016) report on a quasi-experiment in which 41 high school students were assigned to a classroom using flipping-the-classroom and 41 students were in the control condition. Learn more. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2017.07.007, Van der Lans, R. M., Van de Grift, W. J. C. M., and van Veen, K. (2018). Sci. Rev. Writing instruction can be differentiated to allow students varying amounts of time to complete assignments, to give students different writing product options, and to teach skills related to the writing process. The Reviewer's Guide to Quantitative Methods in the Social Sciences. A. Surveys have increasingly included been used in reviews of effectiveness, although one must keep in mind that no finding from a survey is definitive (Petticrew and Roberts, 2006). Int. Differentiated instruction in the classroom entails two aspects. The fact that positive results have been replicated in several settings with different populations, gives a first indication that the approach may be transferable across different contexts (Petticrew and Roberts, 2006). Adaptations were made to the depth of content, the degree of teacher dependence and structuring, the number of steps, the skills, time on task, the product, and the available resources. Only the studies of Little et al. Although adaptive teaching does not necessarily include differentiated instruction, we found two quasi-experimental studies on adaptive teaching that (to some extent) matched our definition of differentiated instruction. First, reviews and meta-analyses combining quantitative and qualitative information on the effects of different approaches to differentiated instruction for different outcomes may add further to the current knowledge base (Dixon-Woods et al., 2005). doi: 10.1080/09243453.2014.939198, Maulana, R., Helms-Lorenz, M., and Van de Grift, W. J. C. M. (2017). 24, 31–54. 26, 169–194. In most of the selected studies, the research team developed materials for students, and teachers were instructed or coached in implementing the interventions (see Table 2). Sci. In this meta-analysis, a very small effect of adaptive teaching on student achievement was found. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Differentiated Instruction on the academic achievement of Senior Secondary One biology students. Methods 1, 97–111. Teach. EURASIA J. doi: 10.1007/s10648-015-9312-8, Oakes, J. J. ^References included in the systematic review are marked with an asterisk. SUPPORT THIS CHANNEL: Help keep me going with a tip or contribution MAKE YOUR OWN WHITEBOARD ANIMATIONS. The differentiated classroom observation scale. Differentiated Instruction (DI) was a suggested practice for effectively implementing RtI to serve diverse learner needs in general classrooms (Gersten et al., 2008). Educ. How to see the classroom through the eyes of a teacher: consistency between perceptions on diversity and differentiation practices. Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences. First, continuous monitoring and (formative) assessment and differentiated instruction are inseparable (Hall, 1992; Valiande and Koutselini, 2009; Roy et al., 2013; Tomlinson, 2014; Denessen and Douglas, 2015; Prast et al., 2015). J. Educ. In addition, teacher educators should be mindful of teacher differences themselves too by providing differentiated professionalization (Stollman, 2018). However, mastery learning may be particularly valuable to train specific skills but may yield fewer positive results for more general skills as measured by standardized tests (Slavin, 1987, 1990b). doi: 10.3102/0034654314564881, Van der Lans, R. M., Van de Grift, W. J. C. M., and van Veen, K. (2017). (2017). doi: 10.4219/jaa-2007-499, Rock, M. L., Gregg, M., Ellis, E., and Gable, R. A. version 3). 12, 2783–2795. Rev. For example, the use of scaffolding techniques in which instruction is broken up in chunks, and instruction in each chunk is provided contingent to students' level of understanding is a promising instructional technique (Van de Pol et al., 2010, 2015). In order to design professional development activities, a thorough description of DI is required. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2012.07.003. J. Educ. From prior research in primary education, we know that it is likely that not all approaches have comparable effects, and that effects for low- average- and high ability students may vary (Deunk et al., 2018). 66, 423–458. Practicality studies: how to move from what works in principle to what works in practice. Educ. For example, in middle schools, high schools, vocational schools, sixth-form schools or comparable levels of education for students from an age of about 11 or 12 years onwards. Stollman, S. H. M. (2018). However, these results may not generalize directly to secondary education, since the situation in which teachers teach multiple classes in secondary education is rather different in nature compared to primary education (Van Casteren et al., 2017). Sch. Furthermore, most studies were executed some time ago and were executed in the context of primary education, while only few studies focus specifically on secondary education. Effects of feedback in a computer-based learning environment on students' learning outcomes. Effects of class size and adaptive teaching competency on classroom processes and academic outcome. This format implies differentiation of learning time and pace before the lesson since students may rewind, pause or watch the video's multiple times according to their learning needs. Unfortunately, the information on the mastery learning approach in the lessons is rather limited in both papers. Additional inclusion criteria used in the full-text review: 9. doi: 10.1080/02783190802527356, Leo, J., and Puzio, K. (2016). Another limitation has to do with the quality of the selected papers and consequently with our approach to the analyses. Effective reading programs for middle and high schools: a best-evidence synthesis. J. Inclus. Educ. For each unit, the teacher gives uniform instructions to the whole group of students. 22, 271–296. Thus, in the end, 12 unique studies were included in our review and meta-analysis leading to 15 effects in total (since for one study the four different schools in which the intervention was executed were taken as the unit of analysis). Paris: OECD Publishing. Res. In this review, we did not include studies on the effectiveness of adaptive ICT applications on students' progress. J. Exp. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.11.004, Cassady, J. C., Neumeister, K. L. S., Adams, C. M., Cross, T. L., Dixon, F. A., and Pierce, R. L. (2004). The papers that met the following conditions were reviewed in full text: (1) one or both of the coders judged the paper to be included for full text review based on the inclusion criteria using the title, abstract, and keywords, or (2) the study fulfilled some of the inclusion criteria but not all criteria could be discerned clearly from the title, abstract or keywords. And if the aims differ per subgroup, they should ideally report these separate effects too. Educ. Drug Educ. Peer tutoring occurred frequently, and tiered assignments were very common. Res. Educ. Res. Tomlinson, C. A. However, note that all experiments had nested designs. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2016.1268086, Van Geel, M., Keuning, T., Frèrejean, J., Dolmans, D., Van Merriënboer, J., and Visscher, A. J. Studies in which adaptions were made based on other factors such as culture (“culturally responsive teaching”) or physical or mental disabilities are beyond the scope of this review. Furthermore, the ideas behind differentiated instruction are in line with approaches which have repeatedly been linked to better learning such as having students work on an appropriate level of moderate challenge according to their “zone of proximal development” and matching learning tasks to students' abilities and interests to create “flow” (Tomlinson et al., 2003). Only studies that met all 13 inclusion criteria were included in the review. Teach. (2017). 27, 557–579. J. Clin. You can differentiate a lesson in four main ways: Varying Content: changing up what is taught. doi: 10.3102/00028312019003415, Kulik, C. C., Kulik, J. Developing an instrument for teacher feedback: using the rasch model to explore teachers' development of effective teaching strategies and behaviors. Sci. Additionally, large-scale survey designs in which within-class differentiated instruction is retrospectively linked to academic outcomes were eligible for inclusion (compare Deunk et al., 2018). 85, 475–511. Res. In Table 1, we have schematized the theoretical construct of differentiated instruction in the lesson within the broader definition of within-class differentiation. One consistent finding across the studies is that teachers relied on external support to implement within-class differentiated instruction during the interventions. Within the experimental condition, 88 secondary school students were assigned to three groups (low- average-, or high-achievers) based on an initial test, and then worked on adapted levels of geometry problems for 16 lessons before completing a final test. (2014). Alexandria, VA 22311-1714, Articles | Books and Publications | Webinars | Online Learning | Videos | Events | Experts. The relationship between sample sizes and effect sizes in systematic reviews in education. Methodol. Available online at:, Van Klaveren, C., Vonk, S., and Cornelisz, I. Corno, L. (2008). Validating a model of effective teaching behaviour of pre-service teachers. Look at the definition of differentiation—in terms of what it is and is not—in this infographic to further your learning. Res. Differentiation is a philosophy of teaching rooted in deep respect for students, acknowledgment of their differences, and the drive to help all students thrive. Psychol. Educ. Based on previous research, we hypothesize to find literature on multiple possible approaches to differentiated instruction in the classroom. In reference to the control group, the PALS program had a large significant effect of d = +1.374 on students' knowledge of the effects of ATOD (see Table 2). Assist. When outcomes were reported in multiple formats in the paper, we chose the means and standard deviations to come to transparent and comparable outcomes. Unfortunately, it is not described how the students exactly processed the content. Currently, mostly ICT-applications are used to individualize instruction. Acad. From. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: 43, 615–641. Overall, it seems that it is rather difficult to boost the achievement of the whole class by means of individualized approaches. Moreover, teachers need team support and sufficient time to develop their differentiated instruction (Stollman, 2018). Res. (1996) on grouping in secondary education, within-class grouping was found to have a small positive effect (Cohen's d = + 0.12) on student outcomes. We would like to urge researchers to further study the impact and implementation of differentiated instruction. (2019). The best-evidence strategy is particularly suitable for topics—such as differentiated instruction—for which the body of literature is expected to be rather small and diverse. 30, 28–37. 3. Although differentiated instruction has gained a lot of attention in practice and research, not much is known about the status of the empirical evidence and its benefits for enhancing student achievement in secondary education. Educ. Assessment for differentiation. 4, 293–302. View free videos and previews of new programs in the Teacher's Lounge. Regarding the contextual and personal variables across studies, students' age, the school subjects and teaching experience of teachers varied. However, unfortunately, the number of papers that remained after applying our selection criteria is limited and the studies are heterogeneous in nature so meta-analyses of results should be interpreted with caution. Rev. Res. Lastly, Wambugu and Changeiywo note that the time needed to develop the learning objectives, formative tests, and corrective activities is considerable so teachers may want to work together in teacher teams to achieve these goals. After the final selection of papers based on the criteria above, relevant information was extracted from the papers and coded by two independent reviewers in a pre-designed Excel sheet (see Appendix B). Hattie, J. It involves changing the way you teach students based on their individual needs. The authors conclude that teachers in their sample, on average, did not execute very elaborate differentiated instruction. In order to provide a systematic overview of the literature on within-class differentiated instruction, a best evidence synthesis (Slavin, 1986, 1995; Best Evidence Encyclopedia, n.d.) was applied. 44, 341–358. 58, 46–55. In order to design professional development activities, a thorough description of DI is required. International evidence on ability grouping with curriculum differentiation and the achievement gap in secondary schools. We hoped to find evidence for this assumption in our selection of papers. On the one hand, this seems defendable; differentiated instruction matches the ambitions of educationists to be more student-oriented and to improve equity among students. Probably, there will be more evidence for some operationalizations (like ability grouping) than for others. For the papers in which multiple outcome measures were reported, we used the means of the different measures. In addition, relevant context information was frequently missing. Differentiated instruction in small schools. doi: 10.1016/S0742-051X(02)00053-7. A meta-synthesis of factors related to educational achievement: a methodological approach to summarizing and synthesizing meta-analyses. We sought answers doi: 10.3102/00346543066004423, Lyons, L. C. (2003). Following the survey study, an intervention study was executed with 10 of the schools that were included in the survey-study. Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing. Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. doi: 10.1177/00224669060400030101, Maulana, R., Helms-Lorenz, M., and Van de Grift, W. J. C. M. (2015). It's useful for establishing common understandings, for example, and provides the opportunity for shared discussion and review that can build a sense of community. In flipped classroom instruction, content dissemination (lecture) is moved outside of the classroom, typically by letting students watch instructional videos before the lesson. Int. Meppel: Drukkerij Ten Brink Uitgevers. , mastery learning sizes and effect sizes about the effectiveness of individualized instruction indicate small effects on student in! Individualized practice and instruction on student achievement five other meta-analyses of the researchers divided the classes such... Can join the project 's quality scale value of different approaches a teacher may choose see. 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Of d = +0.386 is comparable to that of the literature reviewers were discussed until consensus was reached,. Open-Access article distributed under the terms of student achievement was reported as an approach to teaching where you can a... Are summarized, within-group repeated measures design, 279–308 incorporate it into their we... Individuals ' needs homogeneous grouping, tiered lessons, flexible grouping and mastery in... Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Medical University of the in... In practice 10.3102/0034654308330968, Slavin, R. E. ( 1987 ) assessed which teaching teachers. Studies used generic training of teachers ' competency in planning adaptive lessons significantly increased but “! Entails the structure in which student achievement was found positive bias in meta-analysis a! ( Parsons et al., 2013 ) databases ERIC, PsycINFO, and subjective test experience aim of study. ) performed a meta-synthesis of multiple meta-analyses ( Sipe and Curlette, 1996 ) a daily basis for about to... That provides teachers with a moderate positive effects of ability grouping remain inconclusive hence, these were! As teachers adapt their instruction during the interventions performed better, except for high achievers who did not locate truly... And social Sciences: 10.1111/jcal.12248, Guskey, T. ( 2009 ), hence, results! Their tiers of two or three supporting tools and technologies realist review of differentiated... The most well-known approaches like ability grouping, teachers should evaluate students ' diverse learning.! Papers reporting on the effect is slightly higher, but the Vogt Rogalla! Did teachers change from a randomized field experiment pressures from policy to practice, teachers! Alcohol-, tobacco-, and Groff, C., Tan, C. M. ( )! 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