The outer circle is made up of post-colonial countries in which English, though not the mother tongue, has for a significant period of time played an important role in education, governance, and popular culture. Between 1.5 billion and 2 billion people across the planet speak English. The Great Famine of 1845–49 drove 1.5 million Irish to seek homes in the New World, and the European revolutions of 1848 drove as many Germans to settle in Pennsylvania and the Midwest. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. They tend to aspirate both plosives (stops) and fricative consonants very forcibly; thus, two is pronounced with an audible puff of breath after the initial t, and while may be heard with a voiceless /w/. On the other hand, immigrant groups have introduced new varieties in which the influence of ethnic origins is evident, and some immigrant languages are widely spoken (notably Spanish, in the southeastern and southwestern states). However, there are some significant differences in pronunciation, spelling and word usage around the world. Later they took words from foreign settlers: chowder and prairie from the French, scow and sleigh from the Dutch. Nonstandard The language is used out of rules and it is used in a non-appropiate way Standard The most important thing is the uniformity in grammar and vocabulary, which is used by english speakers not necessary native. When, however, the definite article is reduced to t and the following word begins with t or d, as in t’tail or t’dog, it is replaced by a slight pause as in the RP articulation of the first t in hat trick. The two main groups are Britain and America. The differences from the standard variety may be linked to English proficiency, or may be part of a range of varieties used to express identity. The main two are: English in England and American English. The resident population at this time was generally speaking Common Brittonic—the insular variety of continental Celtic, which was influenced by the Roman occupation. Commonwealth English is the most important language variety in Australia, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, the Cook Islands, Dominica, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Grenada, Guernsey, Guyana, Ireland, Jamaica, Isle of Man, Jersey, Malta, Montserrat, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, the Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint … Two words with initial v have found their way into RP: vat from fat and vixen from fixen (female fox). A lot of the common words used have strange origins. The RP /t∫/, the sound of the ch in church, can become k, as in thack (“thatch, roof”) and kirk (“church”). 3.2.1 Language … Another South Western feature is the development of a d between l or n and r, as in parlder for parlour and carnder for corner. These cookies do not store any personal information. document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); Today, urbanization, quick transport, and television have tended to level out some dialectal differences in the United States. Language variation • No two speakers of a language speak exactly the same way • No individual speaker speaks the same way all the time 3. Its five chief subdialects comprise the Delmarva Peninsula, the Virginia Piedmont, northeastern North Carolina (Albemarle Sound and Neuse Valley), Cape Fear and Pee Dee valleys, and the South Carolina Low Country, around Charleston. This video deals with the issue of how the varieties of English are taken over in countries such as Malaysia that belong to the outer circle, the circle in which English is spoken as a second language. For the present overview the varieties of English in the modern world are divided into four geographical groups as follows. Scots, or Lowland Scottish, was once a part of Northern English, but the two dialects began to diverge in the 14th century. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of approximately 19 million Canadians (57% of the population) the remainder of the population were native speakers of Canadian French (22%) or other languages (allophones, 21%). Tanzania, India) and contiguous regions (e.g. * * * * * * English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. The use of English has spread far beyond those countries where it is used as a Þrst language. This term is used to distinguish the quality of written English language used in the UK from other varieties. French 5. RP is the only British accent that has no specific geographical correlate: it is not possible, on hearing someone speak RP, to know which part of the United Kingdom he or she comes from. ESL : English as a second language, these are the non-native speakers who have learnt English almost at the same time as their mother tongue. American English sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States and widely adopted in Canada. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In several Northern accents, RP /a:/ (the first vowel sound in father) is still pronounced /æ/ (a sound like the a in fat) in words such as laugh, fast, and path; this pronunciation has been carried across the Atlantic into American English. English Accents and Dialects is an essential guide to contemporary social and regional varieties of English spoken in the British Isles today. English language - English language - Australian and New Zealand English: Unlike Canada, Australia has no concentration of a European language other than English within its borders. Looking at different flavors of English: all the different accents, dialects, pronunciations, registers and so on. Canadian English is the set of varieties of English native to Canada. These are the varieties of English that have become standard or most recognized and used in the majority of the world. Canadian English is believed by some scholars to have derived from northern American English. Varieties of English. ASt this is such a huge topic, I’m ignoring the historical Englishes, OE and ME; I’m looking briefly at the ‘occupational’ varieties of English… This encompasses both the well-established varieties in England and the newer varieties that have emerged as English has spread to become a world language. The influence of the Irish language on the speech of Dublin is most evident in the syntax of drama and in the survival of such picturesque expressions as We are after finishing, It’s sorry you will be, and James do be cutting corn every day. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. For example, in American English, you can say, "She's gotten better." About three-quarters of its words come from Greek and Latin, but, as Ammon Shea points out in "Bad English: A History of Linguistic Aggravation," "it is certainly not a Romance language, it is a Germanic one. English language, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that is closely related to the Frisian, German, and Dutch (in Belgium called Flemish) languages. English is ever adopting new words from other languages (350 languages, according to David Crystal in "English as a Global Language"). Distribution of majority Anglophone and Francophone populations in Canada. English is far more than one language. The English language is an amalgamation of cultures, intricacies, and experiences. Check out our article about English Eponyms. Most international business transactions, including emails, memos, reports and contracts, are written in English. Highland English Wales Welsh English Abercraf Anglesey Cardiff Gower Gwynedd Port Talbot Wrexham Isle of … Northern Ireland has dialects related in part to Scots and in part to the southern Irish dialect of English. In Norfolk one hears skellington and solintary for skeleton and solitary, showing an intrusive n just as does messenger in RP from French messager, passenger from French passager, and nightingale from Old English nihtegala. Other Germanic languages include Dutch, German, Icelandic, Swedish, and more. Less than one-fourth of its people, living mostly in the province of Quebec, have French as their mother tongue. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Dec. 11, 2020. Other East Anglian words show consonantal metathesis (switch position), as in singify for signify, and substitution of one liquid or nasal for another, as in chimbly for chimney and synnable for syllable. This site is sponsored by the School of Languages, Cultures and Linguistics at the University of New England (Australia) Top 10 blogs in 2020 for remote teaching and learning; Dec. 11, 2020. The boundary with Canada nowhere corresponds to any boundary between dialects, and the influence of United States English is strong, being felt least in the Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland and Labrador. These varieties have their own ways of pronouncing words, their own special vocabulary and even their own grammatical rules. For example, 'Singlish' (spoken in Singapore) is a variety very different from standard English, and there are many other varieties of English used in India. 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